Species of Anoplodiscus Sonsino, 1890 were previously only known from host members of Sparidae. A new species, Anoplodiscus hutsonae n. sp. is proposed for museum specimens originally collected from species of Scolopsis Cuvier (Nemipteridae) off Heron Island and Lizard Island, Australia. Additionally, Anoplodiscus tai Ogawa, 1994 is synonymised with Anoplodiscus cirrusspiralis Roubal, Armitage & Rohde, 1983 due to a lack of support for differential characters, and Anoplodiscus richiardii is considered a species inquirenda. Anoplodiscus cirrusspiralis causes visible lesions on the skin and fins of its host, and may also contribute to poor food conversion rates in sparid aquaculture. Anoplodiscus cirrusspiralis has been recorded from cultured sparids in Australia, Japan, South Africa, and South Korea, and was implicated as a disease agent in fish from the former two countries. However, the discovery of A. cirrusspiralis on Chrysoblephus gibbiceps (Valenciennes), Ch. laticeps (Valenciennes) and Cymatoceps nasutus (Castelnau) in South Africa, ?Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel) in South Korea, and P. auratus (Forster) in Australia, New Zealand and Japan suggests that this species may have a wide distribution and low host-specificity within the Sparidae. In South Africa, A. cirrusspiralis was first encountered on a morbid C. nasutus and Ch. gibbiceps from two public aquaria in 2009 (Two Oceans Aquarium, Cape Town and uShaka Sea World, Durban, respectively). Additional material was collected from C. laticeps kept at an abalone farm in Hermanus that originated from Struisbaai on the South African south coast. Anoplodiscus cirrusspiralis is redescribed from the South African specimens. This is the first record of a member of Anoplodiscidae Tagliani, 1912 from Africa.