Objective: To compare sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) levels between testicular and ejaculated sperm and to evaluate outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with the use of testicular (Testi-ICSI) versus ejaculated (Ejac-ICSI) sperm in nonazoospermic men with high SDF.
Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Setting: Not applicable.
Patient(s): Normo- and oligozoospermic men with high levels of SDF in semen subjected to Testi-ICSI or Ejac-ICSI.
Intervention(s): Summary mean difference (MD) and odds ratio (OR) were calculated with the use of an inverse variance model and fixed- or random-effects models, respectively.
Main outcome measure(s): Primary outcomes were SDF levels, clinical pregnancy rates (CPRs), and live birth rates (LBRs). Secondary outcomes were fertilization and miscarriage rates.
Result(s): Five studies involving 143 patients provided paired SDF rates for testicular and ejaculated sperm, revealing lower SDF in testicular sperm (MD -24.58%). Four studies involving 507 cycles and 3,840 oocytes reported clinical outcomes of Testi-ICSI and Ejac-ICSI. Fertilization rates were not different between sperm sources, but a trend to lower rates was observed with Testi-ICSI. CPRs were higher for Testi-ICSI than for Ejac-ICSI, as were LBRs, whereas miscarriage rates were reduced with Testi-ICSI.
Conclusion(s): Testicular sperm have lower levels of SDF than ejaculated sperm, with Testi-ICSI for high post-testicular SDF men improving reproductive outcomes compared with Ejac-ICSI. Infertile couples may benefit from Testi-ICSI if male partners have confirmed high SDF in the ejaculate.
Keywords: Semen; intracytoplasmic sperm injection; male infertility; sperm DNA fragmentation; testicular sperm.
Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.