Wound Healing Effect of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water on Cutaneous Wounds in Hairless Mice via Immune-Redox Modulation

Biol Pharm Bull. 2017;40(9):1423-1431. doi: 10.1248/bpb.b17-00219.

Abstract

Acidic electrolyzed water is an innovative sanitizer having a wide-spectrum of applications in food industry, and healthcare industry but little is known on its effect and mechanism in wound healing. The study was conducted to identify the effect and mechanism of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) on cutaneous wounds in hairless mice. SAEW (pH: 5-6.5, oxidation reduction potential: 800 mV, chlorine concentration: 25 ppm) was prepared through electrolysis of water and was applied to the wounds of hairless mice three times a day for seven days. Wound size, immune response and oxidative stress were explored and compared to conventional agents such as Betadine and alcohol. We found that SAEW-treated group showed the highest wound reduction percentage (p<0.01). Antioxidant activities such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase and myeloperoxidase activities of SAEW group surpassed the total reactive oxygen species in skin. Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related-factor-2 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor were upregulated in SAEW group. Further, SAEW recruited the production of intracellular calcium and promoted its utilization for faster healing. In line, SAEW treatment decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant, and tumor necrosis factor-α] in serum. Other hallmarks of wound healing, matrixmetalloproteinases (MMP)1 and MMP9 were also upregulated. Collectively, our study indicates that SAEW is effective in wound healing of hairless mice via immune-redox modulation, and heals better/faster than conventional agents.

Keywords: immune response; oxidative stress; slightly acidic electrolyzed water; wound healing.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Disinfectants
  • Electrolysis*
  • Female
  • Immunologic Factors / pharmacology*
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Hairless
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Skin / pathology
  • Water / chemistry
  • Water / pharmacology*
  • Wound Healing / drug effects*
  • Wounds and Injuries / pathology

Substances

  • Antioxidants
  • Cytokines
  • Disinfectants
  • Immunologic Factors
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Water
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases
  • Calcium