In most human 'XX males', DNA sequences normally found on Yp, the short arm of the Y chromosome, are present on Xp, the short arm of the X chromosome. To establish whether this transfer involves a terminal portion of Yp, and whether a terminal portion of Xp is lost in the process, we followed the inheritance of pseudoautosomal restriction fragment length polymorphisms in two XX-male families. One XX male apparently inherited the entire pseudoautosomal region of his father's Y chromosome and no part of the pseudoautosomal region of his father's X chromosome. The second XX male also inherited the entire pseudoautosomal region of his father's Y, but in addition inherited a proximal portion of the pseudoautosomal region of his father's X. These findings argue that XX males result from the transfer of a terminal portion of Yp onto Xp in exchange for a terminal portion of Xp (ref. 7). This implies that the testis-determining factor gene (TDF) maps distally in the strictly sex-linked portion of Yp, near the pseudoautosomal domain. The XX males described here appear to result from single (and, at least in the second case, unequal) crossovers proximal to the pseudoautosomal region on Yp and proximal to or within the pseudoautosomal region on Xp.