Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces marxianus Cocultures Allow Reduction of Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, and Monosaccharides and Polyols Levels in Whole Wheat Bread

J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Oct 4;65(39):8704-8713. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b02793. Epub 2017 Sep 22.


Fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) are small molecules that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine and rapidly fermented in the large intestine. There is evidence that a diet low in FODMAPs reduces abdominal symptoms in approximately 70% of the patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. Wheat contains relatively high fructan levels and is therefore a major source of FODMAPs in our diet. In this study, a yeast-based strategy was developed to reduce FODMAP levels in (whole wheat) bread. Fermentation of dough with an inulinase-secreting Kluyveromyces marxianus strain allowed to reduce fructan levels in the final product by more than 90%, while only 56% reduction was achieved when a control Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was used. To ensure sufficient CO2 production, cocultures of S. cerevisiae and K. marxianus were prepared. Bread prepared with a coculture of K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae had fructan levels ≤0.2% dm, and a loaf volume comparable with that of control bread. Therefore, this approach is suitable to effectively reduce FODMAP levels in bread.

Keywords: FODMAPs; Kluyveromyces marxianus; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; fermentation; inulinase; invertase; wheat.

MeSH terms

  • Bread / analysis
  • Bread / microbiology*
  • Coculture Techniques
  • Diet
  • Disaccharides / analysis
  • Disaccharides / metabolism
  • Fermentation*
  • Fructans / analysis
  • Glycoside Hydrolases / metabolism
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome / diet therapy
  • Kluyveromyces / metabolism*
  • Monosaccharides / analysis
  • Monosaccharides / metabolism
  • Oligosaccharides / analysis
  • Oligosaccharides / metabolism
  • Polymers / analysis
  • Polymers / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism*
  • Sugars / metabolism*
  • Triticum / chemistry*


  • Disaccharides
  • Fructans
  • Monosaccharides
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Polymers
  • Sugars
  • polyol
  • Glycoside Hydrolases
  • inulinase