Seasonal pattern of incidence and outcome of Acute Kidney Injury: A national study of Welsh AKI electronic alerts

Int J Clin Pract. 2017 Sep;71(9). doi: 10.1111/ijcp.13000. Epub 2017 Sep 4.


Objectives: To identify any seasonal variation in the occurrence of, and outcome following Acute Kidney Injury.

Methods: The study utilised the biochemistry based AKI electronic (e)-alert system established across the Welsh National Health Service to collect data on all AKI episodes to identify changes in incidence and outcome over one calendar year (1st October 2015 and the 30th September 2016).

Results: There were total of 48 457 incident AKI alerts. The highest proportion of AKI episodes was seen in the quarter of January to March (26.2%), and the lowest in the quarter of October to December (23.3%, P < .001). The same trend was seen for both community-acquired and hospital-acquired AKI sub-sets. Overall 90 day mortality for all AKI was 27.3%. In contrast with the seasonal trend in AKI occurrence, 90 day mortality after the incident AKI alert was significantly higher in the quarters of January to March and October to December compared with the quarters of April to June and July to September (P < .001) consistent with excess winter mortality reported for likely underlying diseases which precipitate AKI.

Conclusions: In summary we report for the first time in a large national cohort, a seasonal variation in the incidence and outcomes of AKI. The results demonstrate distinct trends in the incidence and outcome of AKI.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / diagnosis
  • Acute Kidney Injury / epidemiology*
  • Acute Kidney Injury / etiology
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Seasons*
  • Wales / epidemiology
  • Young Adult