A general method to fine-tune fluorophores for live-cell and in vivo imaging

Nat Methods. 2017 Oct;14(10):987-994. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.4403. Epub 2017 Sep 4.


Pushing the frontier of fluorescence microscopy requires the design of enhanced fluorophores with finely tuned properties. We recently discovered that incorporation of four-membered azetidine rings into classic fluorophore structures elicits substantial increases in brightness and photostability, resulting in the Janelia Fluor (JF) series of dyes. We refined and extended this strategy, finding that incorporation of 3-substituted azetidine groups allows rational tuning of the spectral and chemical properties of rhodamine dyes with unprecedented precision. This strategy allowed us to establish principles for fine-tuning the properties of fluorophores and to develop a palette of new fluorescent and fluorogenic labels with excitation ranging from blue to the far-red. Our results demonstrate the versatility of these new dyes in cells, tissues and animals.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / anatomy & histology
  • Cell Line
  • Coloring Agents / chemistry*
  • Drosophila
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Larva / cytology
  • Mice
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence
  • Photochemical Processes
  • Staining and Labeling / methods*


  • Coloring Agents