Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a frequent autosomal dominant genetic disorder that predisposes to the development of benign and malignant tumors. Mutation of the NF1 gene affects the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway and leads to a dysfunction in cell proliferation and induces tumor development. Epidemiology of cancer in children with NF1 is very different from the general pediatric population, which requires regular and specific monitoring. Neurofibroma is the most frequent benign tumor. It can be very invalidating depending on the size and location of the tumor. Currently, there is no specific treatment for these tumors. The most frequent malignancies in children with NF1 are leukemias, rhabdomyosarcomas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and gliomas. The treatment of these tumors should consider the risk of second cancers induced by radio- and chemotherapy. We report on the case of a 5-year-old boy with NF1 developing two tumors.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.