Gastric poorly cohesive carcinoma: a correlative study of mutational signatures and prognostic significance based on histopathological subtypes

Histopathology. 2018 Mar;72(4):556-568. doi: 10.1111/his.13383. Epub 2017 Nov 29.


Aims: Genome-wide next-generation sequencing has revealed several driver mutations and has allowed the establishment of a molecular taxonomy of gastric cancer. However, there are few detailed studies on the mutational spectrum of poorly cohesive gastric carcinoma. Thus, this study aim to investigate its mutation profile based on clinicopathological characteristics.

Methods and results: Herein, we analysed the mutational pattern of 77 genes in a cohort of 91 patients with poorly cohesive carcinoma by using targeted sequencing, and evaluated the clinicopathological significance of the various mutations based on histological pattern, either signet ring cell (SRC) or other types of poorly cohesive carcinoma (not otherwise specified) (PCC-NOS). Panels of seven (PIK3CA, CDH1, PTEN, RHOA, HDCA9, KRAS, and ATM), three (PIK3CA, CTNNB1, and KRAS) and two (HDCA9 and IGF1R) genes were associated with a diffuse infiltrative growth pattern, lymphovascular invasion, and perineural invasion, respectively. Furthermore, PDGFRB mutations were associated with a favourable prognosis, whereas MET mutations were associated with a poor prognosis. The PCC-NOS-predominant type was associated with a greater depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis and poorer prognosis than the SRC-predominant type. Mutations in TP53, BRAF, PI3CA, SMAD4 and RHOA were associated with PCC-NOS. Interestingly, RHOA-mutated gastric cancers showed a distinct morphology, as they were characterised by a superficial SRC or tubular component and a deep invasive PCC-NOS component with desmoplasia.

Conclusions: Taken together, our findings demonstrate that gastric poorly cohesive carcinomas show several mutational patterns associated with specific clinicopathological characteristics, and particularly show distinct morphological findings when associated with RHOA mutation.

Keywords: gastric cancer; mutational analysis; poorly cohesive carcinoma; prognosis; targeted sequencing.

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / genetics
  • Adenocarcinoma / mortality
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / genetics*
  • Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / mortality
  • Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology*
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Female
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Humans
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Stomach Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / mortality
  • Stomach Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Transcriptome