Anti-inflammatory effects of dulse (Palmaria palmata) resulting from the simultaneous water-extraction of phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll a

Food Res Int. 2017 Oct;100(Pt 1):514-521. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.06.040. Epub 2017 Jul 14.


The use of dulse (Palmaria palmata) as a source of edible anti-inflammatory products was evaluated in this study. Phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll a were simultaneously extracted from lyophilized dulse leaves via water-extraction, and subjected to thermolysin digestion to produce thermolysin-digested water-extract (d-DWE). d-DWE significantly reduced tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and nitric oxide in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells), and orally administered d-DWE mitigated acute inflammation in carrageenan-induced paw edema of mice. Mass spectrometry revealed d-DWE contained peptide LRDGEIILRY (derived from phycoerythrin β-chain) and chlorophyll a decomposition products, and they individually reduced the secretion of the proinflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results indicate the anti-inflammatory activity could be from a combined effect of phycobiliprotein and chlorophyll a decomposition products prepared from the water-extract of dulse. Thus, inexpensive and safe water-extraction method is effective for the extraction of anti-inflammatory components from dulse.

Keywords: Anti-inflammatory effect; Chlorophyll; Dulse; Pheophorbide; Phycobiliprotein; Water-extract.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents* / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents* / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents* / pharmacology
  • Chlorophyll A* / chemistry
  • Chlorophyll A* / isolation & purification
  • Chlorophyll A* / pharmacology
  • Cytokines / analysis
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Liquid-Liquid Extraction
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Phycobiliproteins* / chemistry
  • Phycobiliproteins* / isolation & purification
  • Phycobiliproteins* / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts* / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts* / pharmacology
  • RAW 264.7 Cells
  • Rhodophyta / chemistry*
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Cytokines
  • Phycobiliproteins
  • Plant Extracts
  • Chlorophyll A