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, 9 (7), e1420

Association of Lipid Profile in Pregnancy With Preeclampsia, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, and Preterm Delivery

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Association of Lipid Profile in Pregnancy With Preeclampsia, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, and Preterm Delivery

Babita Ghodke et al. Cureus.

Abstract

Introduction During the last two trimesters of pregnancy, glucose is spared (for the foetus), while the concentration of fatty acids in plasma increases, which can create complications like preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and preterm delivery. Aim To study the association of serum lipid levels during the second and third trimesters with the development of pregnancy-associated diseases, such as preeclampsia, GDM, and preterm delivery. Methods and Materials The present study was carried out at MGM Hospital, Navi Mumbai, India. Two hundred antenatal cases from October 2012 to October 2014 were enrolled after giving an informed consent. A lipid profile was recorded for each subject and was later accessed. The lipid profile of the subjects having either GDM, preterm, or preeclampsia was further used to find an association with the individual disorders. Statistical analyses were performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 (IBM SPSS Statistics, Armonk, NY). All reported p-values are two-tailed, and confidence intervals were calculated at the 95% level. Results In preeclamptic patients, the mean systolic blood pressure was 151.40 mm/Hg and the mean diastolic blood pressure was 74.03 mm/Hg in the third trimester. In preeclamptic patients, the mean serum triglyceride levels in the second trimester were 204.00 mg/dl, while the mean was 243.20 mg/dl in the third trimester. In GDM patients, the mean serum triglyceride was 214.33 mg/dl in the second trimester, while it was 230.50 mg/dl in the third trimester. In patients with preterm, the mean triglycerides levels were 212.83 mg/dl and 240.16 mg/dl in the second and third trimesters, respectively. In preeclamptic patients, the mean serum cholesterol levels in the second trimester were 210 mg/dl, while in the third trimester, the mean was 243.60 mg/dl. In GDM patients, the mean serum cholesterol was 223.50 mg/dl and 242.83 mg/dl in the second and third trimester, respectively. The mean cholesterol levels in patients with preterm in second and third trimesters were 213.33 mg/dl and 243.66 mg/dl, respectively. Out of the total 200 patients, 168 had no complications, while 20 (10%) had preeclampsia, six (3%) had gestational diabetes mellitus, and the other six {3%} had preterm deliveries. Conclusion An association between maternal early pregnancy triglyceridaemia and the subsequent risk of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and preterm deliveries was observed. The occurrence of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and preterm deliveries cannot be predicted based on the values of serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). Hence, estimation of lipid profile is strongly recommended during pregnancy to prevent the deleterious effect of hyperlipidaemia associated with pregnancy.

Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus; lipid profile; preeclampsia; pregnancy-related disease; preterm.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. Comparison of lipid parameters between second and third trimesters
HDL: high-density lipoprotein; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; VLDL: very-low-density lipoprotein; GDM: gestational diabetes mellitus

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