[Recurrent instability and instability arthropathy]

Unfallchirurg. 2018 Feb;121(2):142-151. doi: 10.1007/s00113-017-0408-0.
[Article in German]


Capsulolabral reconstruction (Bankart repair) is recommended as the first line treatment in young and functionally demanding active patients with anteroinferior shoulder instability, due to the high tendency to recurrent dislocation. This has become established both for arthroscopic and open primary shoulder stabilization with good clinical outcome; nevertheless, recurrence of dislocation is reported in up to 25% of patients. Risk factors for failed surgery are patient (e.g. young age, male gender and contact sports) and surgery (e.g. primarily underestimated glenoid bone loss, Hill-Sachs lesion, non-treatment of bipolar defects or malpositioned anchors) related. In the management of recurrent instability, it is necessary to carry out a thorough clinical investigation in addition to extended diagnostics with X‑ray and computed tomography. A second Bankart repair is only indicated in patients with low demands and without any glenoid bone loss. In the majority of patients, bony augmentation of the glenoid is necessary and realized by coracoid or iliac crest bone block transfer. The Latarjet procedure is biomechanically advantageous due to the additional sling effect of the conjoined tendons and both techniques show good clinical outcomes and a low recurrence rate. Furthermore, engaging Hill-Sachs lesions also require additional treatment. Remplissage of the infraspinatus muscle, iliac crest bone block transfer and partial joint replacement are viable options. A final consensus for treatment of Hill-Sachs lesions has yet to be defined. Dislocation arthropathy is an underestimated complication as a result of frequent recurrent dislocations. After development of dislocation arthropathy, patients reported a painful restriction of range of motion rather than instability. Arthroscopic arthrolysis and comprehensive arthroscopic management (CAM procedure) are possible joint-preserving treatment options.

Keywords: Bankart repair; Hill-Sachs defect; Iliac crest bone block; Latarjet; Shoulder.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Arthroscopy / methods
  • Athletic Injuries / surgery
  • Bankart Lesions / diagnosis
  • Bankart Lesions / surgery
  • Bone Transplantation / methods
  • Glenoid Cavity / surgery
  • Humans
  • Joint Instability / diagnosis
  • Joint Instability / surgery*
  • Male
  • Recurrence
  • Reoperation / methods
  • Risk Factors
  • Shoulder Dislocation / diagnosis
  • Shoulder Dislocation / surgery*
  • Shoulder Joint / surgery
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed