This chapter presents an overview of the dynamic modification of serine or threonine hydroxyl moieties on nuclear, mitochondrial, and cytoplasmic proteins by O-linked β-linked N-acetylglucosamine, termed O-β-GlcNAc or simply O-GlcNAc. This seemingly simple carbohydrate modification plays key roles in cellular physiology and disease progression. Underpinning these observations are the thousands of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins that regulate cellular pathways such as epigenetics, gene expression, translation, protein degradation, signal transduction, mitochondrial bioenergetics, the cell cycle, and protein localization.
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