Objective: To evaluate the risk of serious adverse events among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus initiating saxagliptin compared with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) in classes other than dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors.
Research design and methods: Cohort studies using 2009-2014 data from two UK medical record data sources (Clinical Practice Research Datalink, The Health Improvement Network) and two USA claims-based data sources (HealthCore Integrated Research Database, Medicare). All eligible adult patients newly prescribed saxagliptin (n=110 740) and random samples of up to 10 matched initiators of non-DPP-4 inhibitor OADs within each data source were selected (n=913 384). Outcomes were hospitalized major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), acute kidney injury (AKI), acute liver failure (ALF), infections, and severe hypersensitivity events, evaluated using diagnostic coding algorithms and medical records. Cox regression was used to determine HRs with 95% CIs for each outcome. Meta-analyses across data sources were performed for each outcome as feasible.
Results: There were no increased incidence rates or risk of MACE, AKI, ALF, infection, or severe hypersensitivity reactions among saxagliptin initiators compared with other OAD initiators within any data source. Meta-analyses demonstrated a reduced risk of hospitalization/death from MACE (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.97) and no increased risk of hospitalization for infection (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.02) or AKI (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.11) associated with saxagliptin initiation. ALF and hypersensitivity events were too rare to permit meta-analysis.
Conclusions: Saxagliptin initiation was not associated with increased risk of MACE, infection, AKI, ALF, or severe hypersensitivity reactions in clinical practice settings.
Keywords: post-authorization safety study; saxagliptin; type 2 diabetes mellitus.