Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Filters applied. Clear all
. 2011 Mar 18;4(3):575-584.
doi: 10.3390/ma4030575.

Using Converter Dust to Produce Low Cost Cementitious Composites by in Situ Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Synthesis

Affiliations
Free PMC article

Using Converter Dust to Produce Low Cost Cementitious Composites by in Situ Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Synthesis

Péter Ludvig et al. Materials (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanofibers (CNFs) were synthesized on clinker and silica fume particles in order to create a low cost cementitious nanostructured material. The synthesis was carried out by an in situ chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process using converter dust, an industrial byproduct, as iron precursor. The use of these materials reduces the cost, with the objective of application in large-scale nanostructured cement production. The resulting products were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and were found to be polydisperse in size and to have defective microstructure. Some enhancement in the mechanical behavior of cement mortars was observed due to the addition of these nano-size materials. The contribution of these CNTs/CNFs to the mechanical strength of mortar specimens is similar to that of high quality CNTs incorporated in mortars by physical mixture.

Keywords: CVD; carbon nanotubes; cement; composites; compressive strength; converter dust; flexural strength; in situ synthesis.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
The CVD reactor used for in situ CNT/CNF synthesis on cementitious materials.
Figure 2
Figure 2
(a) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of nanostructured clinker, at high magnification, of smaller diameter synthesis product; (b) SEM image of nanostructured clinker at low magnification. Polydispersion in diameter of the product can be observed; (c) SEM image of nanostructured silica fume at high magnification. Carbon nanotube (CNT) diameter is about 30–60 nm; (d) SEM image of nanostructured silica fume at low magnification shows nanotubes with lower diameter dispersion.
Figure 3
Figure 3
(a) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of carbon nanotube (CNT) grown on silica fume at high magnification. The wall structure shows high level of imperfections; (b) TEM image of nanostructured silica fume at low magnification. Tubular and fibrous structures can be observed.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and DTGA diagrams of the nanostructured clinker with two clearly visible mass loss peaks.
Figure 5
Figure 5
TGA and DTGA diagrams of the nanostructured silica fume with two mass loss peaks.
Figure 6
Figure 6
(a) Compressive strength of mortar specimens made with and without nanostructured clinker or silica fume at the age of 28 days; (b) Flexural strength of mortar specimens made with and without nanostructured clinker or silica fume at the ages of 7 and 28 days. Notes: REF-C—mortar without nanostructured material and without silica fume; NST-C—mortar made with nanostructured clinker; REF-S—reference mortar made with silica fume; NST-S—mortar made with nanostructured silica fume.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

References

    1. Salvetat J.P., Bonard J.M., Thomson N.H., Kulik A.J., Forró L., Benoit W., Zuppiroli L. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes. Appl. Phys. A. 1999;69:255–260. doi: 10.1007/s003390050999. - DOI
    1. Li G.Y., Wang P.M., Zhao X. Mechanical behavior and microstructure of cement composites incorporating surface-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Carbon. 2005;43:1239–1245. doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.017. - DOI
    1. Makar J., Margeson J., Luh J. Carbon nanotube/cement composites—Early results and potential applications; Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Construction Materials: Performance, Innovations and Structural Implications; Vancouver, Canada. 22–24 August 2005; pp. 1–10.
    1. Musso S., Tulliani J.M., Ferro G., Tagliaferro A. Influence of carbon nanotubes structure on the mechanical behavior of cement composites. Composites Sci. Technol. 2009;69:1985–1990. doi: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2009.05.002. - DOI
    1. Nasibulin A.G., Shandakov S.D., Nasibulina L.I., Cwirzen A., Mudimela P.R., Habermehl-Cwirzen K., Grishin D.A., Gavrilov Y.V., Malm J.E.M., Tapper U., et al. A novel cement-based hybrid material. New J. Phys. 2009;11:1–11. doi: 10.1088/1367-2630/11/2/023013. - DOI
Feedback