Background: Gallstone disease is a leading indication for non-obstetric abdominal surgery during pregnancy. There are limited whole population data on maternal and neonatal outcomes. This population-based study aims to describe the outcomes of gallstone disease during pregnancy in an Australian setting.
Methods: Linked hospital, birth, and mortality data for all women with singleton pregnancies in New South Wales, Australia, 2001-2012 were analysed. Exposure of interest was gallstone disease (acute biliary pancreatitis, gallstones with/without cholecystitis). Outcomes including preterm birth (spontaneous and planned), readmission, morbidity and mortality (maternal and neonatal) were compared between pregnancies with and without gallstone disease. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 99% confidence intervals were estimated using modified Poisson regression and adjusted for maternal and pregnancy factors.
Results: Among 1 064 089 pregnancies, 1882 (0.18%) had gallstone disease. Of these, 239 (12.7%) had an antepartum cholecystectomy and 1643 (87.3%) were managed conservatively. Of those managed conservatively, 319 (19.0%) had a postpartum cholecystectomy. Gallstone disease was associated with increased risk of preterm birth (aRR 1.3, 99% CI 1.1, 1.6), particularly planned preterm birth (aRR 1.6, 99% CI 1.2, 2.1), maternal morbidity (aRR 1.6, 99% CI 1.1, 2.3), maternal readmission (aRR 4.7, 99% CI 4.2, 5.3), and neonatal morbidity (aRR 1.4, 99% CI 1.1, 1.7). Surgery was associated with decreased risk of maternal readmission (aRR 0.4, 99% CI 0.2, 0.7).
Conclusions: Gallstone disease during pregnancy was associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Most women with gallstone disease during pregnancy are managed conservatively. Surgical management was associated with decreased risk of readmission.
Keywords: cholecystectomy; cholecystitis; hospitalisation; morbidity; pregnancy.
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.