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Review
. 2010 Sep 8;3(9):4639-4656.
doi: 10.3390/ma3094639.

Fabrication of Al-Al₃Ti/Ti₃Al Functionally Graded Materials Under a Centrifugal Force

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Free PMC article
Review

Fabrication of Al-Al₃Ti/Ti₃Al Functionally Graded Materials Under a Centrifugal Force

Shimaa El-Hadad et al. Materials (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Fabrication of Al-Al₃Ti functionally graded materials (FGMs) under the centrifugal force has recently attracted some attention. The controlled compositional gradient of the fabricated FGMs, the low cost of the process, and the good mold filling, are the main advantages of the centrifugal method (CM). Using the conventional CM techniques such as the centrifugal solid-particle method and centrifugal in-situ method, FGMs rings with gradually distributed properties could be achieved. As a more practical choice, the centrifugal mixed-powder method (CMPM) was recently proposed to obtain FGMs containing nano-particles selectively dispersed in the outer surface of the fabricated parts. However, if a control of the particles morphology, compound formulas or sizes, is desired, another CM technique is favored. As a development of CMPM, our novel reaction centrifugal mixed-powder method (RCMPM) has been presented. Using RCMPM, Al‑Al₃Ti/Ti₃Al FGMs with good surface properties and temperature controlled compositional gradient could be achieved. In this short review, this novel method will be discussed in detail and the effect of RCMPM processing temperature on the reinforcement particles morphology, size and distribution through the fabricated samples, will be reviewed.

Keywords: centrifugal method (CM); functionally graded materials (FGMs); reaction mixed-powder method.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
The schematic illustration of CSPM [15].
Figure 2
Figure 2
The schematic illustration of CISM [15].
Figure 3
Figure 3
Al-Ti phase diagram [18].
Figure 4
Figure 4
The schematic description of CSPM [19].
Figure 5
Figure 5
Microstructure of Al-Al3Ti CSPM-FGM [15]. (a) Images were taken on a plane perpendicular to the rotation axis in the outer; and (b) inner regions; (c) was taken on a plane perpendicular to the centrifugal force direction in the outer region of the ring.
Figure 6
Figure 6
(a) Volume fraction; and (b) orientation parameter; distribution of Al3Ti inside Al-Al3Ti FGM [23].
Figure 7
Figure 7
Wear volumes of the FGM fabricated at G = 50 [23].
Figure 8
Figure 8
Volume fraction distribution of Al3Ti along the thickness of the Al-Al3Ti CM-FGM ring [25].
Figure 9
Figure 9
Hardness distribution gradient in Al-Al3Ti CM-FGM [25].
Figure 10
Figure 10
A schematic illustration showing the process of the centrifugal mixed-powder method [21].
Figure 11
Figure 11
Scanning Electron Microcopy (SEM) images demonstrating the microstructure close to the tip of the specimen processed at 1350 °C [21].
Figure 12
Figure 12
X-ray diffraction pattern of the sample processed at 1350 °C shown in Figure 11 [21].
Figure 13
Figure 13
Scanning Electron Microcopy (SEM) micrographs of RCMPM-FGMs processed at different temperatures [21].
Figure 14
Figure 14
Al3Ti particles volume fraction distribution at different processing temperatures [21].
Figure 15
Figure 15
Distribution of Al3Ti particles length at different casting temperatures [21].
Figure 16
Figure 16
Vickers hardness distribution from the sample tip up to 35 mm of its length [21].

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References

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