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, 52 (4), 373-382

Hamstring Injuries: Update Article


Hamstring Injuries: Update Article

Lucio Ernlund et al. Rev Bras Ortop.


Hamstring (HS) muscle injuries are the most common injury in sports. They are correlated to long rehabilitations and have a great tendency to recur. The HS consist of the long head of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus. The patient's clinical presentation depends on the characteristics of the lesion, which may vary from strain to avulsions of the proximal insertion. The most recognized risk factor is a previous injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the injury diagnosis and classification. Many classification systems have been proposed; the current classifications aim to describe the injury and correlate it to the prognosis. The treatment is conservative, with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the acute phase followed by a muscle rehabilitation program. Proximal avulsions have shown better results with surgical repair. When the patient is pain free, shows recovery of strength and muscle flexibility, and can perform the sport's movements, he/she is able to return to play. Prevention programs based on eccentric strengthening of the muscles have been indicated both to prevent the initial injury as well as preventing recurrence.

Keywords: Athletic injuries; Muscle skeletal/injuries; Return to sport.


Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Schematic drawing of the hamstrings.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Nordic flexion: (a) athlete in initial kneeling position, (b) athlete makes the trunk inclination movement toward the ground as slowly as possible, with eccentric contraction of the hamstrings.

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