Purpose: Everolimus is a standard treatment option for advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs). This multicenter study evaluated the efficacy and safety of everolimus in low and intermediate grade advanced pNETs.
Methods: Tumors were graded according to the World Health Organization 2010 classification system. Patients with low or intermediate grade pNETs who received everolimus as first- or second-line chemotherapy between 2002 and 2014 were included.
Results: A total of 40 patients with metastatic or recurrent pNETs were included in this study. The median age was 54.5 years (range 19-83 years). Twelve patients (30%) experienced recurrence. There were 11 patients (27.5%) with low grade pNETs and 29 (72.5%) with intermediate. Everolimus was administered as first-line therapy in 30 patients (75%) and as second-line therapy in 10 patients (25%). The median progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with low and intermediate grade pNETs was significantly different (median not reached vs. 11 months, P = 0.015). On multivariate analysis, tumor grade (intermediate grade; HR 6.52, 95% CI 1.31-32.27, P = 0.022) was the only independent prognostic factor for PFS in pNETs. The most common adverse events were stomatitis, skin rash, and anemia.
Conclusions: World Health Organization 2010 grade is the most important determinant for PFS in patients undergoing everolimus treatment for pNETs with an acceptable incidence of adverse events.
Keywords: Everolimus; Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor; Prognosis; Tumor grade; World Health Organization classification.