Temperature compensation is a striking feature of the circadian clock. Here we investigate biochemical mechanisms underlying temperature-compensated, CKIδ-dependent multi-site phosphorylation in mammals. We identify two mechanisms for temperature-insensitive phosphorylation at higher temperature: lower substrate affinity to CKIδ-ATP complex and higher product affinity to CKIδ-ADP complex. Inhibitor screening of ADP-dependent phosphatase activity of CKIδ identified aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) as a temperature-sensitive kinase activator. Docking simulation of ATA and mutagenesis experiment revealed K224D/K224E mutations in CKIδ that impaired product binding and temperature-compensated primed phosphorylation. Importantly, K224D mutation shortens behavioral circadian rhythms and changes the temperature dependency of SCN's circadian period. Interestingly, temperature-compensated phosphorylation was evolutionary conserved in yeast. Molecular dynamics simulation and X-ray crystallography demonstrate that an evolutionally conserved CKI-specific domain around K224 can provide a structural basis for temperature-sensitive substrate and product binding. Surprisingly, this domain can confer temperature compensation on a temperature-sensitive TTBK1. These findings suggest the temperature-sensitive substrate- and product-binding mechanisms underlie temperature compensation.
Keywords: casein kinase 1; circadian clock; enzyme design; enzyme mechanisms; enzyme simulation; phosphorylation; structural biology; synthetic biology; system biology; temperature compensation.
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