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Review
. 2017 Oct;36(4):687-702.
doi: 10.1016/j.csm.2017.05.006.

Osteopenia and Osteoporosis in Female Athletes

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Review

Osteopenia and Osteoporosis in Female Athletes

John M MacKnight. Clin Sports Med. .

Abstract

Disorders of bone density are especially prevalent among athletic women. The severity of bone loss ranges from osteopenia to frank osteoporosis. In female athletes, a higher incidence of osteoporosis is due to a decreased rate of bone accretion in youth, often as a result of hormonal deficiency and/or excessive exercise. Low bone mass poses a particular challenge for athletes because it predisposes to stress-related bone injuries and increases the risk of osteoporosis and insufficiency fractures with aging. This article reviews the pathophysiology of bone thinning in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, the impact of exercise, and the treatment options presently available.

Keywords: Athlete; Low bone density; Osteopenia; Osteoporosis; Sports medicine.

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