Aim: To examine the types of interventions currently available for people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and their effectiveness.
Background: The prevalence of disordered eating in people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus is twice that in their counterparts without diabetes, and is associated with worse biomedical outcomes and greater mortality.
Methods: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, PubMed and OpenGrey databases were searched up to August 2016 to identify studies on interventions in people with Type 1 diabetes-associated disordered eating. For the systematic review, intervention components were identified and their effectiveness was examined. For the meta-analysis, the pooled effect sizes of glycaemic control (HbA1c ) between pre- and post-treatment in treatment and comparison groups were calculated using a random effects model.
Results: Of 91 abstracts reviewed, six studies met the inclusion criteria, of which three had appropriate data for the meta-analysis (n = 118). The pooled effect size was -0.21 95% CI (-0.58 to 0.16; where negative values represent an improvement in HbA1c levels), indicating no statistically significant improvement in the treatment group compared with comparison group. Inpatient therapy appeared to be the most effective treatment, and this had multiple components including cognitive behavioural therapy, psychoeducation and family therapy.
Conclusion: Limited or no improvement in glycaemic control and disordered eating symptoms was observed in people with Type 1 diabetes-associated disordered eating who were receiving currently available interventions. The present review suggests that developing an intensive intervention with a joint focus on both disordered eating and diabetes management is needed for this complex patient group.
© 2017 Diabetes UK.