Roq1 Mediates Recognition of the Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas Effector Proteins XopQ and HopQ1

Plant J. 2017 Dec;92(5):787-795. doi: 10.1111/tpj.13715. Epub 2017 Oct 25.


Xanthomonas spp. are phytopathogenic bacteria that can cause disease on a wide variety of plant species resulting in significant impacts on crop yields. Limited genetic resistance is available in most crop species and current control methods are often inadequate, particularly when environmental conditions favor disease. The plant Nicotiana benthamiana has been shown to be resistant to Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas due to an immune response triggered by the bacterial effector proteins XopQ and HopQ1, respectively. We used a reverse genetic screen to identify Recognition of XopQ 1 (Roq1), a nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) protein with a Toll-like interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain, which mediates XopQ recognition in N. benthamiana. Roq1 orthologs appear to be present only in the Nicotiana genus. Expression of Roq1 was found to be sufficient for XopQ recognition in both the closely-related Nicotiana sylvestris and the distantly-related beet plant (Beta vulgaris). Roq1 was found to co-immunoprecipitate with XopQ, suggesting a physical association between the two proteins. Roq1 is able to recognize XopQ alleles from various Xanthomonas species, as well as HopQ1 from Pseudomonas, demonstrating widespread potential application in protecting crop plants from these pathogens.

Keywords: NLR; Nicotiana benthamiana; HopQ1; Pseudomonas; Xanthomonas; XopQ; non-host resistance; plant disease resistance; plant immunity; plant pathogens.

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Disease Resistance*
  • Plant Diseases / microbiology*
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism*
  • Pseudomonas / metabolism*
  • Tobacco / metabolism*
  • Xanthomonas / metabolism*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Plant Proteins