Background: The National Advisory Committee on Immunization in Canada recommends human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for females and males (ages 9-26). In Canada, the HPV vaccine is predominantly administered through publicly funded school-based programs in provinces and territories. This research provides an overview of Canadian provincial and territorial school-based HPV vaccination program administration and vaccination rates, and identifies foreseeable policy considerations.
Methods: We searched the academic and grey literature and contacted administrators of provincial and territorial vaccination programs to compile information regarding HPV vaccine program administration and vaccination rates in Canada's 13 provincial and territorial jurisdictions.
Results: As of October 2016, all 13 Canadian jurisdictions vaccinate girls, and six jurisdictions include boys in school-based publicly funded HPV vaccination programs. Eleven jurisdictions administer the HPV vaccine in a two-dose schedule. The quadrivalent vaccine (HPV4) has been the vaccine predominantly used in Canada; however, the majority of provinces will likely adopt the nonavalent vaccine in the future. According to available data, vaccination uptake among females ranged between 46.7% and 93.9%, while vaccination uptake among males (in programs with available data to date) ranged between 75.0% and 87.4%.
Conclusions: Future research and innovation will beneficially inform Canadian jurisdictions when considering whether to administer the nonavalent vaccine, whether to implement a two or one-dose vaccination schedule, and how to improve uptake and rates of completion. The usefulness of standardizing methodologies for collecting and reporting HPV vaccination coverage and implementing a national registry were identified as important priorities.
Keywords: Canada; Cancer prevention; Human papillomavirus; Immunization policy; School-based vaccination programs; Vaccination coverage.
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