ESVM guidelines - the diagnosis and management of Raynaud's phenomenon

Vasa. 2017 Oct;46(6):413-423. doi: 10.1024/0301-1526/a000661. Epub 2017 Sep 12.


Regarding the clinical diagnosis of Raynaud's phenomenon and its associated conditions, investigations and treatment are substantial, and yet no international consensus has been published regarding the medical management of patients presenting with this condition. Most knowledge on this topic derives from epidemiological surveys and observational studies; few randomized studies are available, almost all relating to drug treatment, and thus these guidelines were developed as an expert consensus document to aid in the diagnosis and management of Raynaud's phenomenon. This consensus document starts with a clarification about the definition and terminology of Raynaud's phenomenon and covers the differential and aetiological diagnoses as well as the symptomatic treatment.

Keywords: Raynaud’s; hand arm vibration; systemic sclerosis; vasospasm.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Consensus
  • Humans
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Raynaud Disease / classification
  • Raynaud Disease / diagnosis*
  • Raynaud Disease / epidemiology
  • Raynaud Disease / therapy*
  • Risk Factors
  • Terminology as Topic
  • Treatment Outcome