Comprehensive Analytics of Actovegin® and Its Effect on Muscle Cells

Int J Sports Med. 2017 Oct;38(11):809-818. doi: 10.1055/s-0043-115738. Epub 2017 Sep 11.


The ingredients of Actovegin® were analyzed and its effects on the muscle cell proliferation were investigated. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured in medium. Actovegin® was added in five different concentrations (1, 5, 25, 125, and 250 µg) to the differentiation medium. The formations of proliferation factor Ki67 and myosin heavy chains were measured by immunofluorescence. The first primary antibody was anti-Ki67 and anti-Mf20. Cells were washed and treated with the second fluorochrome. Thirty-one Actovegin® ingredients were found to contain significantly higher concentrations and twenty-nine ingredients were found to contain significantly lower concentrations, compared to the mean ranges as described in the literature for the normal physiological concentrations in human adult serum/plasma. A significant increase in the formation of Ki67 was observed in Actovegin® groups, compared to controls. The mean area of myotubes was significantly increased in Actovegin® groups. A significant decrease in the number of myotubes was observed. An increased myotube size (fusion) was observed. The intensity of Mf20 was significantly increased in Actovegin® groups. It could be demonstrated that Actovegin® contains many physiological substances in significantly higher and some in lower concentrations compared to human adult serum. Furthermore, it could be shown that Actovegin® improves muscle cell proliferation.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Proliferation*
  • Culture Media / chemistry
  • Heme / analogs & derivatives*
  • Heme / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Ki-67 Antigen / analysis
  • Mice
  • Muscle Fibers, Skeletal / drug effects
  • Myoblasts / drug effects*
  • Myosin Heavy Chains / analysis
  • Serum / chemistry


  • Culture Media
  • Ki-67 Antigen
  • Heme
  • Actovegin
  • Myosin Heavy Chains