REDD1 induction regulates the skeletal muscle gene expression signature following acute aerobic exercise

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Dec 1;313(6):E737-E747. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00120.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 12.


The metabolic stress placed on skeletal muscle by aerobic exercise promotes acute and long-term health benefits in part through changes in gene expression. However, the transducers that mediate altered gene expression signatures have not been completely elucidated. Regulated in development and DNA damage 1 (REDD1) is a stress-induced protein whose expression is transiently increased in skeletal muscle following acute aerobic exercise. However, the role of this induction remains unclear. Because REDD1 altered gene expression in other model systems, we sought to determine whether REDD1 induction following acute exercise altered the gene expression signature in muscle. To do this, wild-type and REDD1-null mice were randomized to remain sedentary or undergo a bout of acute treadmill exercise. Exercised mice recovered for 1, 3, or 6 h before euthanization. Acute exercise induced a transient increase in REDD1 protein expression within the plantaris only at 1 h postexercise, and the induction occurred in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions. At this time point, global changes in gene expression were surveyed using microarray. REDD1 induction was required for the exercise-induced change in expression of 24 genes. Validation by RT-PCR confirmed that the exercise-mediated changes in genes related to exercise capacity, muscle protein metabolism, neuromuscular junction remodeling, and Metformin action were negated in REDD1-null mice. Finally, the exercise-mediated induction of REDD1 was partially dependent upon glucocorticoid receptor activation. In all, these data show that REDD1 induction regulates the exercise-mediated change in a distinct set of genes within skeletal muscle.

Keywords: muscle fatigue; neuromuscular junction; protein metabolism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Aerobiosis
  • Animals
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • Corticosterone / blood
  • Cytosol / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation / physiology
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology
  • Male
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 / physiology
  • Metformin / pharmacology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Microarray Analysis
  • Muscle Fatigue
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism*
  • Physical Conditioning, Animal / physiology*
  • Receptors, Glucocorticoid / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / physiology*


  • Ddit4 protein, mouse
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Receptors, Glucocorticoid
  • Transcription Factors
  • Metformin
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1
  • Corticosterone