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. 2017;2017:8379843.
doi: 10.1155/2017/8379843. Epub 2017 Aug 16.

Synergistic Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects Between Modified Citrus Pectin and Honokiol

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Free PMC article

Synergistic Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects Between Modified Citrus Pectin and Honokiol

Cheppail Ramachandran et al. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Inflammation is a normal physiological process; however, dysregulation of this process may contribute to inflammatory-based chronic disorders and diseases in animals and humans. Therefore, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of natural products, often recognized in traditional medicine systems, represent therapeutic modalities to reduce or prevent uncontrolled inflammatory processes which in turn potentially ameliorate or prevent sequelae of inflammatory-based symptoms of chronic diseases. We have investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of honokiol (HNK) and modified citrus pectin (MCP) in vitro and examined whether the MCP : HNK combination has synergistic effects on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Although both HNK and MCP induced a dose-dependent increase in antioxidant activity, the latter has a consistently higher antioxidant effect. The MCP : HNK (9 : 1) combination induced a synergistic effect on antioxidant activity suggesting that the combination is significantly more efficacious than individual compounds. In mouse monocytes, the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced tumor necrosis-α (TNF-α) synthesis was significantly inhibited by HNK and the MCP : HNK combination in a dose-dependent manner and synergistic effects were clearly demonstrated with the combination on TNF-α inhibition. This combination effect was also evident on inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B activity, cyclooxygenase-II activity, and lipid peroxidation in mouse monocytes. Further research into the combination is warranted.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Antioxidant activity of HNK, MCP, and MCP : HNK (9 : 1). The activity equivalent to mM Trolox (vitamin E analog) was analyzed using Antioxidant Assay Kit (Sigma-Aldrich, MO) and plotted against compound concentrations. Antioxidant activity curves were statistically analyzed by paired t test; p < 0.05 for HNK versus MCP, HNK versus MCP : HNK (9 : 1), and MCP versus MCP : HNK (9 : 1); S, synergism between MCP and HNK.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-α (pg/ml) production by HNK, MCP, and MCP : HNK (9 : 1) in RAW 264.7 mouse monocyte cell line. The cells were treated with compounds and/or LPS in starvation medium and TNF-α analyzed by ELISA. Inhibition curves were analyzed by paired t test; p < 0.05 for HNK versus MCP, and HNK versus MCP : HNK (9 : 1); S, synergism between MCP and HNK.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by HNK, MCP, and MCP : HNK (9 : 1) in RAW 264.7 mouse monocyte cell line. Lipid peroxidation was significantly inhibited by HNK treatment of monocytes. The treatment groups were compared using paired t test; p < 0.05 for HNK versus MCP and HNK versus MCP : HNK (9 : 1). MCP and MCP : HNK (9 : 1) treatments were not statistically significant.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Inhibition of NF-κB (p65) activity by HNK, MCP, and MCP : HNK (9 : 1) in RAW 264.7 mouse monocyte cell line. NF-kB activity is inhibited significantly by MCP and MCP : HNK (9 : 1) treatment of monocytes and not by HNK alone. The treatment groups were compared using paired t test; p < 0.05 for HNK versus MCP and HNK versus MCP : HNK (9 : 1). No significant difference was observed between MCP and MCP : HNK (9 : 1) treatment. S, synergism between MCP and HNK.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-II (COX-II) activity by HNK, MCP, and MCP : HNK (9 : 1) treatment. The inhibition curves were compared by paired t test; p < 0.05 for HNK versus MCP and MCP versus MCP : HNK (9 : 1). No significant difference was observed between MCP and MCP : HNK (9 : 1) treatment.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Effect of HNK, MCP, and MCP : HNK (9 : 1) on nitric oxide synthesis in RAW 264.7 mouse monocyte cell line. (a) Effect on nitrite concentration in cells treated with increasing concentrations of compounds. No significant difference was noticed among HNK, MCP, and MCP : HNK (9 : 1) treated monocytes. (b) Effect on nitrate concentration in cells treated with increasing concentrations of HNK, MCP, and MCP : HNK (9 : 1). Treatment groups were compared using paired t test; p < 0.05 for HNK versus MCP and HNK versus MCP : HNK (9 : 1). No significant difference between MCP and MCP : HNK (9 : 1) treatment groups. (c) Effect on nitrite + nitrate concentration in cells treated with increasing concentrations of HNK, MCP, and MCP : HNK (9 : 1). Treatment groups were compared using paired t test; p < 0.05 for HNK versus MCP and HNK versus MCP : HNK (9 : 1). No significant difference is noticed between MCP and MCP : HNK (9 : 1).

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