Spontaneous isolated celiac or superior mesenteric artery (SMA) dissection (SICMAD) is a rare clinical entity. Not much is known about the natural history and appropriate treatment. We retrospectively queried a prospectively collected institutional radiology database for all patients diagnosed with SICMAD from 1990 to 2017. We identified 42 arteries in 40 patients (83.3% male), mean age 54.8 ± 10.9 years, consisting of 24 celiac arteries and 18 SMA. SMA lesions were longer than celiac lesions (5.15 ± 3.81 vs 2.38 ± 1.40 cm, p = 0.008). Thirty-one patients had follow-up; mean follow-up was 4.9 ± 4.8 years. Morphologic improvement was seen in 20 (48%) arteries. Sakamoto IV lesions were more likely to remodel (OR: 11.26, 95% CI: 1.13, 588.26, p = 0.039), and Sakamoto II lesions less likely to remodel (OR: 0, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.93, p = 0.05). Patients received an average of 2.35 scans during follow-up. Symptom resolution occurred in all symptomatic patients, and 16% of patients had recurrence of symptoms. Follow-up CT scans revealed a stable arterial diameter for the majority of patients. In conclusion, the majority of patients with SICMAD improve with medical therapy alone. Aneurysmal dilatation is uncommon.
Keywords: arterial dissection; computed tomographic angiography (CTA); isolated celiac artery dissection; isolated superior mesenteric artery (SMA) dissection.