The present study aimed to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of the fructose‑1,6‑bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1) signaling pathway within normal follicle development and in hyperandrogenism‑induced abnormal follicle growth. To achieve this, murine primary follicles, granulosa cells (GCs) and theca‑interstitial cells (TICs) were isolated, cultured in vitro and treated with a high concentration of androgens. A concentration of 1x10‑5 mol/l testosterone was considerable to induce hyperandrogenism by MTT assay. All cells were divided into four groups, as follows: Control group, testosterone group, androgen receptor antagonist‑flutamide group and flutamide + testosterone group. Flutamide was used in the present study as it blocks the effects of the androgen receptor. The mRNA expression levels of FBP1 were detected using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels and localization of FBP1 were analyzed by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. The experimental results demonstrated that androgen presence stimulated follicle development, whereas excessive testosterone inhibited development. FBP1 was identified as being mainly expressed in follicles; FBP1 protein was significantly expressed in GCs of the 14‑day‑cultured follicle, as well as in the cytoplasm and nuclei of GCs and TICs in vitro. Testosterone increased FBP1 expression during a specific range of testosterone concentrations. Testosterone increased the expression of FBP1 within GCs. Furthermore, FBP1 and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1) mRNA expression was increased in GCs treated with testosterone, whereas forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ coactivator‑1α mRNA expression was significantly decreased in the testosterone group. In TICs, testosterone and flutamide inhibited the mRNA expression levels of FOXO1 and glucose‑6‑phosphatase enzyme, and promoted the expression of PCK1. These results suggested that the FBP1 signaling pathway may serve an important role in normal follicle growth and hyperandrogenism‑induced abnormal development, which may be associated with abnormal glucose metabolism induced by high concentrations of testosterone.