Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders: A Literature Review

Am Orthopt J. 2017 Jan;67(1):89-92. doi: 10.3368/aoj.67.1.89.


Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDD) is a new term describing a collection of non-progressive neurogenic syndromes. Initially referred to as congenital fibrosis syndrome, it was thought that the primary problem was extraocular muscular maldevelopment. Recent advancements in genetics and neuro-radiology have now determined the initial observation of fibrotic muscles is secondary to a primary lack of innervation from deficient, absent, or misguided cranial nerves. This presentation provides an overview of the known genes and phenotypes currently recognized within the CCDD domain. It will also highlight areas of current research being done in the area of cranial nerve development. Increased knowledge and awareness of these disorders has resulted in more research being conducted. These studies have provided a more complete understanding of efferent motor system development and are leading to improved treatment strategies for patients.

Keywords: Bolsey-Salih-Alorainy syndrome; CCDDs; Möbius syndrome; congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder; gene mutations.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cranial Nerves / abnormalities*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Ocular Motility Disorders / congenital*
  • Ocular Motility Disorders / genetics
  • Oculomotor Muscles / innervation*