Giant cell tumor of bone revisited

SICOT J. 2017;3:54. doi: 10.1051/sicotj/2017041. Epub 2017 Sep 14.


Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a locally aggressive benign neoplasm that is associated with a large biological spectrum ranging from latent benign to highly recurrent and occasionally metastatic malignant bone tumor. It accounts for 4-10% of all bone tumors and typically affects the meta-epiphyseal region of long bones of young adults. The most common site involved is the distal femur, followed by the distal radius, sacrum, and proximal humerus. Clinical symptoms are nonspecific and may include local pain, swelling, and limited range of motion of the adjacent joint. Radiographs and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the imaging modalities of choice for diagnosis. Surgical treatment with curettage is the optimal treatment for local tumor control. A favorable clinical outcome is expected when the tumor is excised to tumor-free margins, however, for periarticular lesions this is usually accompanied with a suboptimal functional outcome. Local adjuvants have been used for improved curettage, in addition to systematic agents such as denosumab, bisphosphonates, or interferon alpha. This article aims to discuss the clinicopathological features, diagnosis, and treatments for GCT of bone.