The protective efficacy against typhoid fever of a single intramuscular injection of 25 micrograms of the Vi capsular polysaccharide (CPS) was assessed in a randomised double-blind controlled trial. Vaccination of 11,384 children was followed by 21 months' surveillance. 47 blood-culture-proven cases of typhoid occurred in children who received meningococcal A + C CPS vaccine and 19 cases in those vaccinated with Vi CPS. Protective efficacy was 60% calculated from the day of vaccination and 64% from 6 weeks after vaccination. Surveillance also included 11,691 unvaccinated children; 173 cases occurred in this group. Protective efficacy in relation to the unvaccinated group was 77.4% and 81.0% after 21 months, calculated immediately and 6 weeks after vaccination, respectively. Vaccination was associated with minimum local side-effects, and an increase in anti-Vi antibodies occurred, as measured by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody levels remained significantly raised at 6 and 12 months post vaccination. Vi CPS is thus a safe and effective means of typhoid vaccination.