Maximal exercise capacity was measured in 20 nondiabetic patients with end-stage renal disease before and soon after successful renal transplantation. Maximal oxygen consumption increased significantly in all patients posttransplant. Increases in maximal heart rate and heart rates at 70% of maximal levels were also observed. The changes in maximal oxygen consumption were not significantly correlated with changes in hematocrit. The removal of uremia may result in improved functioning of one or more of the systems involved in oxygen transport and utilization that determine exercise capacity.