It is known that multiple myeloma (MM) cells express CD38 and that a recently developed human anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody Daratumumab mediates myeloma killing. However, the expression of CD38 and other functionally related ectoenzymes within the MM bone niche and the potential effects of Daratumumab on bone cells are still unknown. This study firstly defines by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry the expression of CD38 by bone marrow cells in a cohort of patients with MM and indolent monoclonal gammopathies. Results indicate that only plasma cells expressed CD38 at high level within the bone niche. In addition, the flow cytometry analysis shows that CD38 was also expressed by monocytes and early osteoclast progenitors but not by osteoblasts and mature osteoclasts. Indeed, CD38 was lost during in vitro osteoclastogenesis. Consistently, we found that Daratumumab reacted with CD38 expressed on monocytes and its binding inhibited in vitro osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption activity from bone marrow total mononuclear cells of MM patients, targeting early osteoclast progenitors. The inhibitory effect was not observed from purified CD14+ cells, suggesting an indirect inhibitory effect of Daratumumab. Interestingly, all-trans retinoic acid treatment increased the inhibitory effect of Daratumumab on osteoclast formation. These observations provide a rationale for the use of an anti-CD38 antibody-based approach as treatment for multiple myeloma-induced osteoclastogenesis.
Keywords: CD38; bone disease; immunotherapy; multiple myeloma; osteoclast.