Background: To protect infants from pertussis infection, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends women receive the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy. Here, we assessed the association between timing of maternal Tdap vaccination during pregnancy and acute respiratory infection (ARI) in infants <2months of age.
Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 99,434 infants born to active duty military women in the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry from 2006 through 2013. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to calculate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between maternal Tdap vaccination during pregnancy and infant ARI at <2months of age.
Results: Infants of mothers who received Tdap vaccination during pregnancy vs those who did not were 9% less likely to be diagnosed with an ARI at <2months of age (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.99), and the risk was 17% lower if vaccination was received between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.93). Similar results were observed when comparing mothers who received Tdap vaccination prior to pregnancy in addition to Tdap vaccination between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy versus mothers who only received vaccination prior to pregnancy (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.98).
Conclusions: Maternal Tdap vaccination between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy was consistently protective against infant ARI in the first 2months of life vs no vaccination during pregnancy, regardless of Tdap vaccination prior to pregnancy. Our findings strongly support current ACIP guidelines recommending Tdap vaccination in late pregnancy for every pregnancy.
Keywords: Infant acute respiratory infection; Pertussis; Tdap vaccination; Tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, acellular pertussis; Timing of Tdap vaccination; Vaccinations in pregnancy.
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