Marine molluscs, including oysters, can concentrate high levels of cadmium (Cd) in their soft tissues, but the molecular mechanisms of Cd toxicity remain speculative. In this study, Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were exposed to Cd for 9 days and their gills were subjected to proteomic analysis, which were further confirmed with transcriptomic analysis. A total of 4,964 proteins was quantified and 515 differentially expressed proteins were identified in response to Cd exposure. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed that excess Cd affected the DNA and protein metabolism. Specifically, Cd toxicity resulted in the inhibition of DNA glycosylase and gap-filling and ligation enzymes expressions in base excision repair pathway, which may have decreased DNA repair capacity. At the protein level, Cd induced the heat shock protein response, initiation of protein refolding as well as degradation by ubiquitin proteasome pathway, among other effects. Excess Cd also induced antioxidant responses, particularly glutathione metabolism, which play important roles in Cd chelation and anti-oxidation. This study provided the first molecular mechanisms of Cd toxicity on DNA and protein metabolism at protein levels, and identified molecular biomarkers for Cd toxicity in oysters.