Intracerebral hemorrhage as a manifestation of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid revascularization: systematic review and meta-analysis

Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2017 Nov;159(11):2089-2097. doi: 10.1007/s00701-017-3328-4. Epub 2017 Sep 15.


Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the context of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is an uncommon but potentially lethal complication after carotid revascularization for carotid occlusive disease. Information about its incidence, risk factors and fatality is scarce. Therefore, we aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis focusing on the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of ICH in the context of CHS after carotid revascularization.

Methods: We searched the PubMed and EBSCO hosts for all studies published in English about CHS in the context of carotid revascularization. Two reviewers independently assessed each study for eligibility based on predefined criteria. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed, and the PROSPERO register was made (register no. CRD42016033190), including the pre-specified protocol.

Results: Forty-one studies involving 28,956 participants were deemed eligible and included in our analysis. The overall quality of the included studies was fair. The pooled frequency of ICH in the context of CHS was 38% (95% CI: 26% to 51%, I2 = 84%, 24 studies), and the pooled case fatality of ICH after CHS was 51% (95% CI: 32% to 71%, I2 = 77%, 17 studies). When comparing carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS) with carotid endarterectomy (CEA), post-procedural ICH in the context of CHS was less frequent in CEA. ICH following CHS occurred less often in large series and was rare in asymptomatic patients. The most common risk factors were periprocedural hypertension and ipsilateral severe stenosis.

Conclusions: ICH as a manifestation of CHS is rare, more frequent after CAS and associated with poor prognosis. Periprocedural control of hypertension can reduce its occurrence.

Keywords: Carotid angioplasty; Carotid endarterectomy; Carotid revascularization; Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome; Intracerebral hemorrhage.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Angioplasty / adverse effects
  • Carotid Stenosis / surgery*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology*
  • Endarterectomy, Carotid / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Postoperative Complications / etiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Stents / adverse effects
  • Vascular Surgical Procedures / adverse effects*