Outcome of pediatric acute kidney injury: a multicenter prospective cohort study

Pediatr Nephrol. 2018 Feb;33(2):335-340. doi: 10.1007/s00467-017-3786-1. Epub 2017 Sep 15.


Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common problem encountered in critically ill children with an increasing incidence and evolving epidemiology. AKI carries a serious morbidity and mortality in patients requiring admission to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).

Methods: We undertook a prospective cohort study of PICU admissions at three tertiary care hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia over 2 years. The Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) definition was used to diagnose AKI.

Results: A total of 1367 pediatrics PICU admissions were included in the study. AKI affected 511 children (37.4%), with 243 children (17.8%) classified as stage I (mild), 168 patients (12.3%) stage II (moderate), and 100 children (7.3%) were classified as stage III (severe). After adjustment for age, sex, and underlying diagnosis, in-hospital mortality was six times more likely among patients with AKI as compared to patients with normal renal function (adjusted OR: 6.5, 95% CI: 4.2-10). AKI was also a risk factor for hypertension (adjusted OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 2.8-5.9) and prolonged stay in the PICU and hospital, as it increased the average number of admission days by 10 (95% CI: 8.6-11) days in the PICU and 12 (95% CI: 10-14) days in the hospital.

Conclusions: One-third of PICU admissions were complicated with AKI. AKI was associated with increased hospital mortality and the length of stay in both PICU and hospital.

Keywords: Acute kidney injury; Children; Intensive care unit; KDIGO; Outcome.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / epidemiology*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Intensive Care Units, Pediatric / statistics & numerical data
  • Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data
  • Male
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors