Providencia stuartii was the most prevalent bacterial species isolated, for one year, from weekly urine specimens from 51 long-term catheterized patients. Significantly more strains causing bacteriuric episodes of long duration expressed MR/K (mannose-resistant/Klebsiella-like) hemagglutination (74%) than did those causing episodes of short duration (26%; P = .004). Isolates expressing MR/K hemagglutinin bound in higher numbers to catheter material (P = .023) than did those not expressing this hemagglutinin. Significantly more strains causing bacteriuric episodes of short duration expressed the mannose-sensitive (MS) hemagglutinin (43%) than did those causing episodes of long duration (7%; P = .014). Isolates expressing MS hemagglutinin bound significantly more 125I-labeled Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) than did isolates not expressing this hemagglutinin (P = .0001). Our results indicate that MR/K hemagglutinin plays an important role in the ability of P. stuartii to persist and suggest that MR/K adheres to the catheter. Conversely, MS hemagglutinin binds to THP and may prevent persistence of P. stuartii in the catheterized urinary tract.