Dopaminergic amacrine cells were stained in cat, rat, and rabbit retina using an antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Following intraocular injection of DAPI (4,6,diamidino-2-phenylindole), subsequent retinal whole-mount preparations revealed that the dopaminergic fiber plexus formed rings around amacrine cell bodies. Intracellular injection of Lucifer yellow (LY) into A II amacrine cells confirmed that this rod-related, bistratified interneuron has its cell body within the dopaminergic rings. Using a photooxidation process, LY was transformed into an electron-dense reaction product, enabling ultrastructural examination of LY-injected A II amacrine cells. In retinae counterstained with an antibody against TH, it was possible to show synapses from TH-positive fibers onto these cells. The dopaminergic plexus was further investigated by injecting single dopaminergic cells with LY and thus revealing their branching pattern. The present results emphasize the role of dopamine in modulating the rod pathway in mammalian retina.