Background: Antidepressant treatment is associated with a high rate of poor response, and thus, biomarker development is warranted.
Methods: We aimed to synthesize studies investigating gene expression, small RNAs, and epigenomic biomarkers of antidepressant response. We conducted a narrative review of the literature.
Results: Firstly, we detailed the challenges involved, in terms of biological tissues, relevant study time frames, and mandatory statistical tools. Secondly we synthesized results obtained in gene expression studies, focusing mainly on genome-wide studies, particularly small non-coding RNA, including micro-RNA and other small RNA species. In addition, we reviewed the potential biomarkers of antidepressant response arising from studies investigating DNA methylation variation and histone modifications.
Limitations: We did not conduct a meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity of the study.
Conclusion: Although promising, the field of gene expression and epigenomic biomarkers of antidepressant response is still in its infancy, and needs further development to define useful biomarkers in clinical practice.
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