Activated natural killer (NK) cells engage in a robust metabolic response that is required for normal effector function. Using genetic, pharmacological and metabolic analyses, we demonstrated an essential role for Srebp transcription factors in cytokine-induced metabolic reprogramming of NK cells that was independent of their conventional role in the control of lipid synthesis. Srebp was required for elevated glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation and promoted a distinct metabolic pathway configuration in which glucose was metabolized to cytosolic citrate via the citrate-malate shuttle. Preventing the activation of Srebp or direct inhibition of the citrate-malate shuttle inhibited production of interferon-γ and NK cell cytotoxicity. Thus, Srebp controls glucose metabolism in NK cells, and this Srebp-dependent regulation is critical for NK cell effector function.