Inverted formins: A subfamily of atypical formins

Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2017 Nov;74(11):405-419. doi: 10.1002/cm.21409. Epub 2017 Sep 29.


Formins are a family of regulators of actin and microtubule dynamics that are present in almost all eukaryotes. These proteins are involved in many cellular processes, including cytokinesis, stress fiber formation, and cell polarization. Here we review one subfamily of formins, the inverted formins. Inverted formins as a group break several formin stereotypes, having atypical biochemical properties and domain organization, and they have been linked to kidney disease and neuropathy in humans. In this review, we will explore recent research on members of the inverted formin sub-family in mammals, zebrafish, fruit flies, and worms.

Keywords: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease; FHDC1; INF2; actin; focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Actins / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism*
  • Formins
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism*


  • Actins
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • FMNL1 protein, human
  • Formins
  • Nuclear Proteins