The association between insomnia and prescription opioid use: results from a community sample in Northeast Florida

Sleep Health. 2017 Oct;3(5):368-372. doi: 10.1016/j.sleh.2017.07.007. Epub 2017 Aug 10.


Objective: The current analysis examines whether opioid use is associated with insomnia in a community sample, as the consequences of the growing epidemic of prescription opioid use continue to cause public health concern.

Study design: A cross-sectional study including 8433 members in a community outreach program, HealthStreet, in Northeast Florida.

Methods: Community Health Workers (CHWs) assessed health information, including use of opioids (i.e., Vicodin®, Oxycodone, Codeine, Demerol®, Morphine, Percocet®, Darvon®, Hydrocodone) from community members during field outreach. Insomnia was determined based on self-report: "Have you ever been told you had, or have you ever had a problem with insomnia?" Summary descriptive statistics were calculated and logistic regression modeling was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals for insomnia, by opioid use status, after adjustment for demographics and other covariates.

Results: Among 8433 community members recruited (41% male; 61% Black), 2115 (25%) reported insomnia, and 4200 (50.3%) reported use of opioids. After adjusting for covariates, opioid users were significantly more likely to report insomnia than non-users (adjusted OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.25-1.61).

Conclusion: Insomnia was 42% more likely among those who reported using prescription opioids compared to those who did not. With one half of the sample reporting prescription opioid use, and a fourth reporting insomnia, it is important to further investigate the relationship between the two. Findings provide useful preliminary information from which to conduct further analyses.

Keywords: Community; Insomnia; Opioid use; Prescription opioids.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Analgesics, Opioid / adverse effects
  • Analgesics, Opioid / therapeutic use*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Florida / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prescription Drugs / adverse effects
  • Prescription Drugs / therapeutic use*
  • Residence Characteristics
  • Risk Factors
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Analgesics, Opioid
  • Prescription Drugs