Computational model for vitamin D deficiency using hair mineral analysis

Comput Biol Chem. 2017 Oct;70:198-210. doi: 10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2017.08.015. Epub 2017 Aug 30.


Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in the Arabian Gulf region, especially among women. Recent studies show that the vitamin D deficiency is associated with a mineral status of a patient. Therefore, it is important to assess the mineral status of the patient to reveal the hidden mineral imbalance associated with vitamin D deficiency. A well-known test such as the red blood cells is fairly expensive, invasive, and less informative. On the other hand, a hair mineral analysis can be considered an accurate, excellent, highly informative tool to measure mineral imbalance associated with vitamin D deficiency. In this study, 118 apparently healthy Kuwaiti women were assessed for their mineral levels and vitamin D status by a hair mineral analysis (HMA). This information was used to build a computerized model that would predict vitamin D deficiency based on its association with the levels and ratios of minerals. The first phase of the proposed model introduces a novel hybrid optimization algorithm, which can be considered as an improvement of Bat Algorithm (BA) to select the most discriminative features. The improvement includes using the mutation process of Genetic Algorithm (GA) to update the positions of bats with the aim of speeding up convergence; thus, making the algorithm more feasible for wider ranges of real-world applications. Due to the imbalanced class distribution in our dataset, in the second phase, different sampling methods such as Random Under-Sampling, Random Over-Sampling, and Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique are used to solve the problem of imbalanced datasets. In the third phase, an AdaBoost ensemble classifier is used to predicting the vitamin D deficiency. The results showed that the proposed model achieved good results to detect the deficiency in vitamin D.

Keywords: AdaBoost classifier; Bat Algorithm (BA); Classification; Genetic Algorithm (GA); Imbalanced data; Optimization algorithm; Random sampling; Vitamin D deficiency.

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms*
  • Female
  • Hair / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Machine Learning*
  • Minerals / analysis*
  • Mutation
  • Vitamin D / analysis*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / diagnosis*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / genetics


  • Minerals
  • Vitamin D