Epitaxial graphene homogeneity and quantum Hall effect in millimeter-scale devices

Carbon N Y. 2017 May;115:229-236. doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2016.12.087. Epub 2016 Dec 30.

Abstract

Quantized magnetotransport is observed in 5.6 × 5.6 mm2 epitaxial graphene devices, grown using highly constrained sublimation on the Si-face of SiC(0001) at high temperature (1900 °C). The precise quantized Hall resistance of [Formula: see text] is maintained up to record level of critical current Ixx = 0.72 mA at T = 3.1 K and 9 T in a device where Raman microscopy reveals low and homogeneous strain. Adsorption-induced molecular doping in a second device reduced the carrier concentration close to the Dirac point (n ≈ 1010 cm-2), where mobility of 18760 cm2/V is measured over an area of 10 mm2. Atomic force, confocal optical, and Raman microscopies are used to characterize the large-scale devices, and reveal improved SiC terrace topography and the structure of the graphene layer. Our results show that the structural uniformity of epitaxial graphene produced by face-to-graphite processing contributes to millimeter-scale transport homogeneity, and will prove useful for scientific and commercial applications.

Keywords: Adsorption-induced molecular doping; Carrier density; Epitaxial graphene; Low-energy electron microscopy; Quantized Hall effect; Raman microscopy; Strain; Transport mobility.