Kaempferol, which is isolated from several natural plants, is a polyphenol belonging to the subgroup of flavonoids. Kaempferol exhibits various pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. In this study, kaempferol can significantly inhibit the invasion and migration of 786-O renal cell carcinoma (RCC) without cytotoxicity. We examined the potential mechanisms underlying its anti-invasive activities on 786-O RCC cells. Western blot was performed, and the results showed that kaempferol attenuates the manifestation of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) protein and activity. The inhibitive effect of kaempferol on MMP-2 may be attributed to the downregulation of phosphorylation of Akt and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). By examining the SCID mice model, we found that kaempferol can safely inhibit the metastasis of the 786-O RCC cells into the lungs by about 87.4% as compared to vehicle treated control animals. In addition, the lung tumor masses of mice pretreated with 2-10 mg/kg kaempferol were reduced about twofold to fourfold. These data suggested that kaempferol can play a promising role in tumor prevention and cancer metastasis inhibition.
Keywords: invasion.; kaempferol; metastasis; renal cell carcinoma.