Hair Loss: Common Causes and Treatment

Am Fam Physician. 2017 Sep 15;96(6):371-378.


Hair loss is often distressing and can have a significant effect on the patient's quality of life. Patients may present to their family physician first with diffuse or patchy hair loss. Scarring alopecia is best evaluated by a dermatologist. Nonscarring alopecias can be readily diagnosed and treated in the family physician's office. Androgenetic alopecia can be diagnosed clinically and treated with minoxidil. Alopecia areata is diagnosed by typical patches of hair loss and is self-limited. Tinea capitis causes patches of alopecia that may be erythematous and scaly and must be treated systemically. Telogen effluvium is a nonscarring, noninflammatory alopecia of relatively sudden onset caused by physiologic or emotional stress. Once the precipitating cause is removed, the hair typically will regrow. Trichotillomania is an impulse-control disorder; treatment is aimed at controlling the underlying psychiatric condition. Trichorrhexis nodosa occurs when hairs break secondary to trauma and is often a result of hair styling or overuse of hair products. Anagen effluvium is the abnormal diffuse loss of hair during the growth phase caused by an event that impairs the mitotic activity of the hair follicle, most commonly chemotherapy. Physician support is especially important for patients in this situation.

MeSH terms

  • Alopecia / etiology*
  • Alopecia / therapy
  • Hair / growth & development
  • Humans
  • Medical History Taking
  • Physical Examination
  • Tinea Capitis / complications
  • Tinea Capitis / diagnosis
  • Trichothiodystrophy Syndromes / complications
  • Trichothiodystrophy Syndromes / diagnosis
  • Trichotillomania / diagnosis
  • Trichotillomania / psychology

Supplementary concepts

  • Trichorrhexis nodosa syndrome