Juvenile Moyamoya and Craniosynostosis in a Child with Deletion 1p32p31: Expanding the Clinical Spectrum of 1p32p31 Deletion Syndrome and a Review of the Literature

Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Sep 17;18(9):1998. doi: 10.3390/ijms18091998.


Moyamoya angiopathy (MA) is a rare cerebrovascular disorder characterised by the progressive occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Its aetiology is uncertain, but a genetic background seems likely, given the high MA familial rate. To investigate the aetiology of craniosynostosis and juvenile moyamoya in a 14-year-old male patient, we performed an array-comparative genomic hybridisation revealing a de novo interstitial deletion of 8.5 Mb in chromosome region 1p32p31. The deletion involved 34 protein coding genes, including NF1A, whose haploinsufficiency is indicated as being mainly responsible for the 1p32-p31 chromosome deletion syndrome phenotype (OMIM 613735). Our patient also has a deleted FOXD3 of the FOX gene family of transcription factors, which plays an important role in neural crest cell growth and differentiation. As the murine FOXD3-/- model shows craniofacial anomalies and abnormal common carotid artery morphology, it can be hypothesised that FOXD3 is involved in the pathogenesis of the craniofacial and vascular defects observed in our patient. In support of our assumption, we found in the literature another patient with a syndromic form of MA who had a deletion involving another FOX gene (FOXC1). In addition to describing the clinical history of our patient, we have reviewed all of the available literature concerning other patients with a 1p32p31 deletion, including cases from the Decipher database, and we have also reviewed the genetic disorders associated with MA, which is a useful guide for the diagnosis of syndromic form of MA.

Keywords: 1p32p31 deletion; FOX genes; FOXC1; FOXD3; craniosynostosis; moyamoya syndrome.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • Chromosome Disorders / diagnosis
  • Chromosome Disorders / genetics*
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics
  • Craniosynostoses / diagnosis
  • Craniosynostoses / genetics*
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha / genetics
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Moyamoya Disease / diagnosis
  • Moyamoya Disease / genetics*
  • Syndrome


  • FOXD3 protein, human
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • HNF1A protein, human
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha

Supplementary concepts

  • Chromosome 1, monosomy 1p32